Adderall is a prescription-only drug which consists of two active amphetamine constituents. The chemical composition of this smart drug is quite similar to ecstasy-style drugs, such as Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine. Whereas those drugs are neurotoxic to serotonin pathways, Adderall is neurotoxic to dopamine pathways.
Physicians typically prescribe Adderall to cure patients who are suffering from mental conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). The smart drug hits into the specific areas of the patient’s brain which regulate stimulation and hyperactivity. Adderall is said to improve alertness and mental concentration. That was the classic theory anyway, but research has since placed these claims in doubt.
Fundamentally, the drug transports your brain back to the state of regular stimulation from a state of hyper-stimulation. In countries like Canada and the US, it’s legal to use Adderall for the treatment of:
Until now, there are no accurate clinical reports which can validate that Adderall can cause severe brain damage. However, the smart drug could be real addictive and risky to those users who abuse it.
Although Adderall improves focus and cerebral energy, it also suppresses appetites and disrupts the normal sleep cycle. Therefore, its higher dosage is not good for your overall health. It enhances the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in your brain. These hormones and neurotransmitters play a vital role in the regulation of sensations, sleep cycle, and pleasure sensitivities.
As a result of Adderall’s effect, your brain senses that there are adequate neurotransmitters available, and it suspends their production. Your brain even alters some of its natural reward pathways. The continuous use of this drug results in more deep-seated changes in your brain’s functionality. It could lead to tolerance, and your brain might require more dosage to attain the similar desired effects.
When the effects of Adderall are weak, drug longings and withdrawal symptoms might crop up. It implies a physical as well as psychological reliance on the drug. The manner in which this drug is abused together with the quantity and span of its abuse can influence the level of dependence on the drug.
Among the most popular ways of taking Adderall is snorting or injecting the drug after crushing its tablets. This method transfers the drug faster into your brain as compared to taking them orally. Its oral consumption takes more time to release its effects as it enters your bloodstream through the digestive system. Consequently, snorting or injecting methods augment the possibilities of a dreaded addiction or a life-threatening overdose. Addiction is a psychological condition which affects each user individually. Furthermore, biological as well as environmental reasons might also trigger its onset.
According to recent clinical studies, the user, who is dependent on Adderall, might suffer from the following problems:
For those who have been abusing Adderall for extended durations, the psychological phase might be the most apparent side effect. The low levels of this drug in your body decrease the creation of dopamine. The lower levels of dopamine further cause depressions and suppression of pleasure feelings. The abuse of Adderall for longer durations might lead to extreme mood swings when it’s not present in your body. However, with unrelenting self-restraint and appropriate support and care, most of these emotional aspects will gradually get cured over time.
In certain extreme cases, many Adderall users have experienced symptoms such schizophrenia and psychosis, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and other behavioral disorders. Amphetamine, present in Adderall, is responsible for these symptoms. Prolonged use of amphetamine stimulant or during its withdrawal may cause stress and panic attacks.
In the US, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has issued strict instructions to print cautions on Adderall brands regarding its possible harmful side effects. Adderall, along with methamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin, is present in the Schedule II list of substances issued by the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration). The list distinguishes a particular drug with a high likelihood of abuse, which can result in physical and psychological addiction. Those who are already suffering from mental conditions like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder must avoid Adderall.
However, quite similar to several other prescription medicines, it’s pretty easy to acquire Adderall. The users can easily purchase the drug with or without prescription. According to a recent health study, more school and college-going students have been using Adderall as compared to adults. Furthermore, such drug usage is not for any therapeutic purpose. The research even revealed that about 6.5 % of those students had taken the drug for months and years. Another study disclosed that the percentage is growing faster.
Quite unlike the patients with ADHD, Adderall tends to over-stimulate the brain functioning of an average individual. After the drug enters your brain, it imitates the activities of adrenaline hormone and neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Consequently, dopamine leads to a surge of pleasure in the ‘Nucleus Accumbens,’ which is a region in the forebrain portion right behind your eyes. Epinephrine hits the sympathetic nervous system to stimulate concentration, clarity, and wakefulness. The SNS (Sympathetic Nervous System) is responsible for your FOF (fight or flight) reaction. In the meantime, Norepinephrine works to regulate all these actions. It aids in the faster synaptic communication between the nerve cells and even helps them to last longer. Therefore, these substances are continually getting released.
Because of these potent effects, Adderall is quite popular among students as a “study drug.” It enables them to focus sharply on their education. These students even believe that the drug permits them to cram more details into their brains.
However, various clinical studies advocate that such benefits are just a myth. The research even exposed that such drug users were more prone to take marijuana and alcohol. They use Adderall to skip their lectures more often, as well as to waste time rather than studying. It’s still not clear whether Adderall is helping to enhance concentration or if it’s simply promoting pleasure feelings.
No doubt, the effects of Adderall decline with consistent usage. It forces the user to take higher doses to achieve similar outcomes. Possibly the most concerning aspect of Adderall’s usage without any prescription is that 9 out of 10 users aren’t fully aware of its dangerous side effects. Now, it might or might not perk up your school or college grades, but the concerned risks are simply not worth it!